Controlled Vocabulary and Ontology for Plants

Evidence codes:

In order to help standardize the way evidence codes are used for curation of the various databases in Gramene ( eg. Protein,  Mutant, QTL, etc. by using the necessary Ontology viz.

GO (Gene Ontology) for describing genes and their products.
TO (Trait Ontology) for description of phenotypic traits related to mutants and QTLs.
PO (Plant Ontology) for describing plant specific morphology, anatomy and development  related terms.

The codes are listed along with examples (not exhaustive lists) of the kinds of experiments that would fall into each category. For every evidence category, there is a flexibility for the curators to exercise judgement about the quality of the evidence, and how well it supports annotation to a node within each ontology. The distinction between "TAS" and "NAS" is particularly sensitive to interpretation. We will appreciate your feedback, if you think that we should include other types of methodologies under the sub-categories and expand the framework of evaluation. Please feel free to communicate your thoughts at

IC  inferred by curator

IDA  inferred from direct assay

IEA  inferred from electronic annotation

RCA  inferred from Reviewed Computational Analysis

IEP  inferred from expression pattern

IMP  inferred from mutant phenotype

IGI  inferred from genetic interaction

IPI  inferred from physical interaction

ISS  inferred from sequence or structural similarity

IAGP  *inferred by association of genotype from phenotype

SM  starting material

NAS  non-traceable author statement

TAS  traceable author statement

NR  not recorded