Foxtail Millet |
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Oryza Species |
Brachypodium Maps and Statistics
Brachypodium Introduction |
Anatomy | Taxonomy |
Agronomic Statistics |
Germplasm Resources |
Gramene Statistics | Gramene Queries |
The Brachypodiums are considered to be weeds, and as such there are no production statistics.
The majority of Brachypodium species are native to Eurasia and Africa, centered on the Mediterranean, but 3 are in the Western Hemisphere, centered in Mexico (13). According to Piep (13), of the species which have been introduced to the United States, B. distachyon is native to southern Europe, B. sylvaticum is native to Eurasia and northern Africa, B. phoenicoides is native to the northern Mediterranean region, and B. pinnatum is native to Eurasia. Brachypodium is also established in Australia
Brachypodiums are invasive weeds that dominate the areas where it grows (16). In the US, B. distachyon is a weed of urban bushland and of the western edge of the wheatbelt, but under-reported, probably because of superficial similarity to Bromus species (11). In the state of Oregon the False-brome working group, focusing on B. sylvaticum, notes that it crowds out tree seedlings, takes over forests, meadows and rangeland, and reduces the nutrition of range. (16).
Figure 1 Courtesy Plants DB (17.) Identifies locations that the Brachypodiums have been identified in the United States.
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- Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The Online World Grass Flora (GrassBase) http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [Accessed 1/8/07].
- California plant names: Latin and greek meanings and derivations: A dictionary of botanical etymology. Compiled by Michael Charters. Website http://www.calflora.net/botanicalnames/. [Accessed 1/8/07].
- Catalan P, Shi Y, Armstrong L, Draper J, Stace CA. 1995. Molecular phylogeny of the grass genus Brachypodium P. Beauv. based on RFLP and RAPD analysis. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 117, 4, pp. 263-280.
- Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, The. http://www.brachypodium.org/ [Accessed 10/08/06].
- Dept. of Molecular Plant Pathology, University of Wales at Aberystwyth. Brachyomics. http://www.aber.ac.uk/plantpathol/brachyomics.htm.[Accessed February 28, 2007].
- Dept of Rangeland Ecology and Management, Texas A&M University. S M Tracy Herbarium. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/taes/tracy/610/brachypodium.html. [Accessed 1/8/2007].
- Draper J, Mur LA, Jenkins G, Ghosh-Biswas GC, Bablak P, Hasterok R, & Routledge AP. 2001. Brachypodium distachyon. A new model system for functional genomics in grasses. Plant Physiology 127: 1539-1555.
- Hasterok R, Draper J, & Jenkins G. 2004. Laying the cytotaxonomic foundations of a new model grass, Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology 12: 397-403.
- Hasterok R, Marasek A, Donnison IS, Armstead I, Thomas A, King IP, Wolny E, Idziak D, Draper J, & Jenkins G. 2006. Alignment of the genomes of Brachypodium distachyon and temperate cereals and grasses using bacterial artificial chromosome landing with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genetics 173: 349-362.
- Hussey BMJ, Keighery GJ, Cousens RD, Dodd J & Lloyd SG. 1997. Western Weeds, A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. http://members.iinet.net.au/~weeds/pps_publications.htm.
- ITIS - Integrated taxonomic information system on-line database. http://www.itis.gov. [Accessed 1/8/07].
- Piep, Michael B. 2007. Brachypodium in North America north of Mexico. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Brachypodium&type=treatment Based on treatment in M.E. Barkworth et al. (eds). 2007. Flora of North America north of Mexico, volume 24. Oxford University Press, New York. (to order online, see http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/series/FloraofNorthAmerica/?view=usa )
- The Regents of the University of California. 2001. Why Sequence Brachypodium? http://www.jgi.doe.gov/sequencing/why/CSP2007/brachypodium.html. [Accessed Jan 8, 2007].
- USDA, ARS. Brachypodium genome resources project. Website http://brachypodium.pw.usda.gov/. [Accessed 1/8/07].
- USDA Forest Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Agriculture, US Army Corps of Engineers, OSU College of Forestry, Institute for Applied Ecology, Starker Forests Inc., The Nature Conservancy, Native Plant Society of Oregon. 2003. Invasive Plant Alert False-brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum). Prepared by Thomas Kaye. http://www.appliedeco.org/Reports/BRSYbrochure.PDF.
- USDA, NRCS. (2006). The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov), 16 October 2006. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
- Vogel JP, Gu YQ, Twigg P, Lazo GR, Laudencia-Chingcuanco D, Hayden DM, Donze TJ, Vivian LA, B. Stamova B, & Coleman-Derr D. 2006. EST sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. TAG.Theoretical and applied genetics. 113: 186-195.
- Watson, L and Dallwitz, MJ. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 28th November 2005. http://delta-intkey.com. [Accessed 8 January, 2007].
- Wikipedia contributors, 'Brachypodium distachyon', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 6 September 2006, 10:03 UTC, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brachypodium_distachyon&oldid=74106473. [Accessed 8 January, 2007].
- Wilken DH. 1993. Brachypodium. From The Jepson Manual, Copyright © 2007 Regents of the University of California. Available online at http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?8738,8852,8853. [Accessed 1/8/07].